The Numbers 1 to 10 in Russian

1. один – one
2. два – two
3. три – three
4. четыре – four
5. пять – five
6. шесть – six
7. семь – seven
8. восемь – eight
9. девять – nine
10. десять – ten

Play this video below for the pronunciation of each of the numbers.

Russian Grammar : Gender and adjectives

Learn Russian Grammar step-by-step

TOPIC 8: Gender and adjectives

All Russian nouns (things) have a gender.

Russian has 3 genders: masculine, feminine, and neuter.

  • Most masculine nouns end in a consonant, «-й» or the soft sign «-ь»
  • Most feminine nouns end in «-а» or «-я». And occasionally with the soft sign «-ь».
  • Most neuter nouns end in «-о» or «-е».

The form of the adjective must agree the gender of the noun it modifies.

  • Typically a masculine adjective ends in «-ый» or «-ой»
  • Typically a feminine adjective ends in «-ая»
  • Typically a neuter adjective ends in «-ое»

More details and examples with audio here:

Bootstrap Russian Grammar

We are delighted to announce the release of Bootstrap Russian Grammar – a book and mobile app combo.

Bootstrap Russian Grammar is a new way to learn Russian grammar. Starting from the beginning, the idea is progress in small self-contained steps (called ‘topics’). Each topic builds on the last, by incrementally adding new grammatical patterns, new vocabulary and lots of useful examples.

In total there are 200 grammar topics and over 3,000 examples phrases.

Each topic includes a thorough explanation of the grammar and then lots of examples that illustrate the grammar. Each example includes an English translation, as well as notes highlighting how each example illustrates that topic’s grammar, as well as the meanings of new Russian words.

A companion mobile application is now available called “BootStrap Russian Grammar“. The app contains all the content contained in this book – including 200 grammar topics and over 3000 example phrases. And in additional, there is high quality Russian native-speaker audio for every example.

The book and mobile app are easy to coordinate using QR codes. Just scan the QR code at the beginning of any chapter in the book with the app and it will take you straight to the topic where you will find all the examples with the high-quality audio matching the chapter in the book.

So if you prefer to have the grammar set out in book form but would also like to be able to listen to the example sentences, then the book/app combination is perfect for you.

FREE sample of the first 10 topics of the book is available here:

The complete 535-page book is available on Amazon here:

The App is available on the iOS App Store here: The first 10 topics are also free.

The Android version is coming soon.

Bootstrapping Russian: Grammar Lesson Two: Formality in Russian: Вы and Ты

Russian Grammar Lesson 2: Formality in Russian: Вы and Ты

  • The Russian word for ‘you’ (the second person) depends on who is being addressed.
  1. вы is used when addressing someone formally or politely.
  2. Ты is used when talking to friends and family.
  • Grammatically вы behaves just like the second person plural (‘you guys’, ‘ya’ll’).
  • So when first using вы imagine you are talking to two people.


Ты учитель? (Are you (informal) a teacher?)
[ты is the informal ‘you’.]

Ты уже здесь? (Are you (informal) here yet?)
[ты is the informal ‘you’; уже means ‘yet’ or ‘already’.]

Вы профессор? (Are you (formal) a/the professor?)
[вы is the formal ‘you’.]

Вы русский? (Are you (formal) Russian (male)?)
[вы is the formal ‘you’; русский is the male adjective for ‘Russian’.]

Когда вы дома? (When are you (formal) at home?)
[вы is the formal ‘you’; когда means ‘when’.]

Вы всегда дома. (You (formal) are always at home.)
[вы is the formal ‘you’; всегда means ‘always’.]

Когда ты здесь? (When are you (informal) here?)
[ты is the informal ‘you’; когда means ‘when’.]

Ты никогда здесь. (You (informal) are never here.)
[ты is the informal ‘you’; никогда means ‘never’.]

Почему ты здесь? (Why are you (informal) here?)
[ты is the informal ‘you’; почему means ‘why’.]

Вы иногда там? (Are you (formal) sometimes there?)
[вы is the formal ‘you’; иногда means ‘sometimes’.]

Вы часто там? (Are you often there?)
[вы is the formal ‘you’; часто means ‘often’.]

Bootstrapping Russian: Grammar Lesson One: Personal pronouns. And the verb ‘to be’

Russian Grammar Lesson 1: Personal pronouns. And the verb ‘to be’

  • The Russian personal pronouns are: *я* (I), *он* (he), *она* (she), *мы* (we), *вы * (you, plural), *они* (they).
  • The pronoun ‘you’ (singular second person) depends on formality. This is introduced in the next topic.
  • The Russian verb ‘to be’ is omitted in the present tense. This might seem strange at first.
  • In phrases like ‘A is B’, when both A and B are nouns, a dash ‘—’ is used in place of the verb ‘to be’.

NOTE : Russian has no concept of articles like ‘a’ and ‘the’. We rely on context for this.


Я учитель. (I am a/the teacher.)
[The article could be ‘a’ or ‘the’ from the context.]

Я русский. (I am Russian (male).)
[русский (masculine adjective) means ‘Russian’ .]

Кто он? (Who is he?)
[Кто means ‘who’; Note that the word order here is flexible – Он кто? is equally acceptable.]

Он Сергей. (He is Sergei.)

Он там. (He is (over) there.)
[там means ‘over there’.]

Кто онa? (Who is she?)

Она Ольга. (She is Olga?)

Онa здесь. (She is here.) [здесь means ‘here’.]

Они где? (Where are they?) [где means ‘where’]

Они дома. (They are at home?)
[дома mens ‘at home’ from the word дом which means ‘house’ or ‘home’]

Сергей и Ольга дома? (Are Sergei and Olga at home?)
[и means ‘and’.]

Да, они дома. (Yes, they are home?)
[да mean ‘yes’.]

Виктор — водитель. (Victor is a driver.)
[Notice the use of a dash ‘—’ when using ‘to be’ with two nouns (and no pronoun).]

Ольга — профессор. (Olga is a professor. )
[Notice the use of a dash ‘—’ when using ‘to be’ with two nouns (and no pronoun).]

Татьяна русская? (Is Tatiana Russian (female)?)
[русская (feminine adjective means ‘Russian’ ); No dash is required when a noun is used in combination with an adjective.]

Где Иван? (Where is Ivan?)
[Note that где can come either before or after the subject; Note that the word order here is flexible – Иван где? is equally acceptable.]

Вот Иван. (Here is Ivan.)
[вот means ‘here is’ – like the French ‘voilà’]

Музей там./Там музей. (The museum is (over) there.)

Вы где? (Where are you (plural)?)
[Note that the word order here is flexible – Где вы? is equally acceptable.]