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Korean grammar - Because, and so - 아/어서 & 아/어 가지고

Because, and so - 아/어서 & 아/어 가지고

Pattern: Verb stem + /어서; Verb stem + / 가지고

The Verb endings //여서 and // 가지고 are both common ways to say 'because' or 'so'.

Both of these also have a sense of 'and then^.

While similar in meaning / 가지고 is more colloquial.

Recall that we previously saw a similar meaning with the pattern Verb stem + 때문에 which explicitly means 'because'.

세영이는 학교에 늦어서 당황했어요.
Seyoung was embarrassed because she was late for school.

당황하다 means 'to be embrassed' or 'to be taken aback'

어제 책을 다 읽어서 오늘은 쉬고 있어요.
(She) read all the books yesterday, so (she) is resting today.
시간이 다 돼서 오늘 수업을 마칠 거예요.
Time is up, so (I) will wrap up today's class.

마치다 means 'to finish' or 'to complete'

오늘은 바빠서 책을 읽을 수 없네요.
(I) can't read a book today because (I) (surprisingly) busy.
사과가 싸서 한 박스를 샀어요.
The apples were cheap so (I) bought a box.
밤이 깊어서 이젠 집으로 돌아가야 해요.
(I) have to go home because it's late at night.

깊다 means 'to be deep'

밤이 깊다 means 'to be late at night'

날씨가 나빠 가지고 나갈 수 없어요.
The weather is bad, so (we) can't go out.
시험이 다 끝나 가지고 오늘은 놀러 가려고 해요.
Because the exam is over, so (I) am going to have fun today.
그는 배가 아파 가지고 화장실에 갔어요.
(He) went to the bathroom because he had a stomach ache.
저는 시험 준비를 많이 해 가지고 안심이 돼요.
Because I prepared a lot for the exam, (I) feel relieved.
너무 피곤해 가지고 바로 잠들었어요.
Because (I) was so tired. (I) fell asleep right away.
밥을 많이 먹어 가지고 지금은 배불러요.
(I) ate a lot so now (I) am full.
공부를 안 해 가지고 역사 시험에 떨어졌어요.
(I) didn't study so (I) failed the history exam.
집에 와 가지고 바로 잠자리에 들었어요.
(I) came home and went straight to bed.

Here the sense is more 'and then'

김밥을 만들어 가지고 친구한테 줬어요.
(I) made kimbap and gave it to a friend.

Here the sense is more 'and then'