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French grammar - This one here and those ones there - the particles -ci and -là

This one here and those ones there - the particles -ci and -là

The particles -ci and -là can be partnered with the demonstrative adjectives (ce, cette & ces) to specify exactly which object is being referred to.

-ci refers to an object close by or close at hand.

-là refers to an object further away or beyond reach.

The particles are attached to the demonstrative adjectives with a dash.

Cette chemise-ci est trop grande.
This shirt (here) is too big.

trop means 'too' or 'too much' or 'excessively'

Cette valise-ci est assez lourde.
This suitcase (here) is quite heavy.

assez means 'quite' or 'enough'

Mais cette valise-là n'est pas lourde.
But that suitcase (there) is not heavy.
Voulez-vous ces livres-ci ou ces livres-là ?
Do you (formal) want these books (here) or those books (there)?

ou means 'or'

Ces livres-là sont très bon marché.
Those books (there) are very cheap.

bon marché means 'cheap'

Allons-nous dans ce restaurant-ci ou dans ce restaurant-là ?
Are we going to this restaurant or that restaurant?
Ce restaurant-ci est trop cher.
This restaurant is overpriced.

cher means 'expensive' or 'overpriced'

Ces femmes-là sont fascinantes.
Those women are fascinating.

fascinant (m) means 'fascinating'

Ces tomates-ci sont fraîches.
These tomatoes are fresh.

tomate (f) means 'tomato'

Cette chaise-là est cassée.
This chair is broken.
Ce tableau-ci est très connu.
This painting is very well known.

connu (m) means 'well known'

Ces demoiselles-là sont très impatientes.
Those ladies are very impatient.

demoiselle (f) means 'young lady'

impatient (m) means 'impatient'

Ces fraises-ci ne sont pas bon marché.
These strawberries are not cheap.