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Korean grammar - Verb nominalization: past tense

Verb nominalization: past tense

Korean verbs can be nominalized to nouns in the past tense.

Simply take the past base and add

-- for example: 하다 (to do) 했기

The past tense normalised verb can then be used in patterns like Verb + 때문에 as a clause in the past tense.

Other uses of past tense verb nominalization will be encountered in later topics.

저는 시험을 못 봤기 때문에 대학교에 못 갈 거예요.
Because I did badly on the test, (I) won’t be able to go to university.


핸드폰이 없었기 때문에 연락하지 못했어요.
Because (I) didn’t have my mobile phone, I couldn’t get in contact.

없다 없었

아직 점심을 먹지 않았기 때문에 지금 배가 고파요.
Because (I) didn't eat yet, (I) am hungry.

않다 않았

여전히 means 'still' or 'just as before'

제가 밥을 벌써 먹었기 때문에 지금 먹고 싶지 않아요.
Because I already ate, (I) don’t want to eat now.

먹다 먹었

손님이 없었기 때문에 가게 문을 닫았어요.
The store (door) was closed because there were no customers.

없다 없었

손님 means 'customer'

금을 많이 샀기 때문에 돈이 없어요.
(I) don't have money because (I) bought a lot of gold.


means 'gold'

핸드폰이 없었기 때문에 연락 못했어요.
Because (I) didn’t have (my) phone, (I) couldn’t contact (you).

없다 없었

휴대폰 배터리가 방전됐기 때문에 전화를 걸 수 없었어요.
(I) couldn't call because (my) phone's battery became flat.


방전 means 'flat (battery)'

학생이었기 때문에 할인을 받았어요.
(I) got a discount because (I) was a student.

이다 이었

할인 means 'discount'

이었 is the past base of 이다

오늘 아침은 날씨가 좋았기 때문에 걸어서 출근했어요.
(I) walked to walk this morning because the weather was nice.

좋다 좋았

출근하다 mean 'to go to walk'

스페인에 갔기 때문에 스페인어를 배우기 시작했어요.
(I) started learning Spanish because (I) went to Spain.


너무 비쌌기 때문에 새 노트북을 살 수가 없었어요.
(I) couldn't afford to buy a new laptop because (it) was too expensive.

비싸다 비쌌

허리가 아팠기 때문에 걷고 싶지 않았어요.
(I) didn't want to walk because (my) back hurt.

아팠기 아팠

너무 멀었기 때문에 일찍 떠나야 했어요.
(We) had to leave early because (it) was too far away.

멀다 멀었