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Korean grammar - The Subject marker 이/가 and Existence/Possession 있다

The Subject marker 이/가 and Existence/Possession 있다

Pattern: Noun + / and the verb 있다

The verb 있다 is used to express existence: 'to exist' or 'there is' . Or possession: 'to have'.

있다 (with the ending) is its dictionary or infinitive form. When in a sentence, it will conjugate depending on how it is used.

For instance, in the present tense 있다 becomes 있어요.

The object noun that is said to exist or be possessed using 있다 is typically marked with the Subject marker /.

Use if the noun ends with a consonant sound;

and use if the noun ends with a vowel.

Examples:
쥐가 있어요.
There is a mouse.

(ends in a vowel) 쥐가

means 'mouse'

아이가 있어요.
(I) have a child.

아이 (ends in a vowel) 아이가

아이 means 'child' or 'baby'

강이 있어요.
There is a river.

(ends in a consonant) 강이

means 'river'

컴퓨터가 있어요.
(I) have a computer.

컴퓨터가 (ends in a vowel) 컴퓨터가

컴퓨터 means 'computer'

우산이 있어요?
Do (you) have an umbrella?

우산 (ends in a consonant) 우산이

우산 means 'umbrella'

꽃이 있어요.
There is a flower.

(ends in a consonant) 꽃이

means 'flower'

나무가 있어요?
Is there a tree?

나무 (ends in a vowel) 나무가

나무 means 'tree'

사과가 있어요.
(I) have an apple.

사과 (ends in a vowel) 사과가

사과 means 'apple'

모자가 있어요?
Does (he) have a hat?

모자 (ends in a vowel) 모자가

모자 means 'hat'

책이 있어요.
There is a book.

(ends in a consonant) 책이

means 'book'

펜이 있어요?
Do (you) have a pen?

(ends in a consonant) 펜이

means 'pen'