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Korean grammar - Instrumental marker - (으)로

Instrumental marker - (으)로

We previously saw the particle () used to indicate direction - 'in the direction of'.

It is also used as an instrumental marker that indicate the means, method or tool used to perform an action.

Indeed the directional use of this marker is in fact instrumental in the sense that we are going by means of a particular direction.

그는 항상 한국어로 말하고 싶어해요.
He always wants to speak Korean.

Could also say 한국말로 하다

밥을 주걱으로 펐어요.
(I) scooped out the rice with a spatula.
공을 방망이로 쳐요.
(I) hit the ball with a bat.
저는 스파게티를 젓가락으로 먹어요.
I eat spaghetti with chopsticks.
수미는 그 반지를 현금으로 살 거예요.
Sumi will buy the ring with cash.
그림을 붓으로 그렸어요.
(I) paint a painting with a brush.
목을 소금물로 헹굴 거예요.
(I) will rinse (my) throat with salt water.
그는 연필로 글씨를 써요.
He writes (writing) with a pencil.

글씨 means 'writing' or 'characters'

글씨를 쓰다 is a common way to say 'to write something down'

칼로 고기를 썰었어요.
(I) cut the meat with a knife.
우리는 콩으로 두부를 만들거예요.
We will make tofu from soybeans.
그들은 방망이로 공을 쳤어요.
They hit the ball with a bat.
저는 청소기로 방을 청소했어요.
I cleaned the room with a vacuum cleaner.

청소기 means 'vacuum cleaner' or 'hoover'

그는 빗자루나 걸레로 바닥을 청소했어요.
He cleaned the floor with either the broom or the mop.

빗자루 means 'broom'

걸레 means 'rag' or 'mop'

저는 한국어책으로 공부해요.
I study with a Korean book.
그는 책이나 앱으로 한국어를 공부해요?
Does he study Korean with a book or an app?
아이들에게 한국어로만 말해주세요.
Please speak only Korean to the children.