Bootstrap Korean Grammar

Learn Korean Grammar step-by-step

Korean grammar - Adjectives from action verbs

Adjectives from action verbs

Transforming a verb into a noun can be useful: 'to skip' 'skipping' so that we can say 'the skipping person is my brother' or 'the person who is skipping is my brother'.

In Korean this is straightforward and depends on the tense:

Past tense: Verb stem + ()

Present tense: Verb stem +

Future tense: Verb stem + ()

Examples:
소파에서 잔 사람이 누구였어요?
Who is that person who slept on the sofa?

the person who slept (past tense)

자다 (to sleep)

도착한 기차는 대구에서 왔어요.
The train that arrived came from Daegu.

the train that arrived (past tense)

도착하다 (to arrive) 도착한

윤수가 산 전화기가 작동하지 않아요.
The phone that Yoonsu bought doesn't work.

the phone that was bought (past tense)

사다 (to buy)

지난주에 간 식당이 문을 닫았어요.
The restaurant I went to last week is closed (door is closed).

the restaurant to which (we) went (past tense): 가다 (to go)

잠자는 공주는 긴 검은 머리를 가졌어요.
The sleeping princess has long black hair.

the princess who is sleeping (present tense)

잠자다 (to sleep) 잠자는

차를 운전하는 사람은 누구예요?
Who is the person driving the car?

the person who is driving (present tense)

운전하다 (to drive) 운전하는

자는 시간에는 음악을 들어요.
I listen to music during sleep time/bedtime.

the time for sleeping (present tense)

자다 (to sleep) 자는

오늘 저녁에 먹을 한국 음식은 뭐예요?
What’s the Korean dish that we’ll eat for dinner today?

the Korean food that (we) will eat (future tense)

먹다 (to eat) 먹을

다음 달에 학교에 갈 사람은 저예요.
I am the person who will go to school next month.

the person who will go (future tense)

가다 (to go)

우리가 갈 곳은 멀어요.
The place we will go is far.

to place to where we will go (future tense)

가다 (to go)

내일 신을 신발은 새 거예요.
The shoes I will wear tomorrow are new ones.

the shoes that (I) will wear (future tense)

신다 (to wear) 신을

아버지가 요리한 음식을 먹어 봤어요?
Did you try the food father cooked?

the food that was cooked (past tense)

요리하다 (to cook) 요리한

저기 말하는 사람은 누구예요?
Who's that talking person over there?

the person who is talking (present tense)

말하다 (to speak, talk) 말하는

제가 사랑하는 여자는 착한 사람이에요.
The girl I love is a good person.

the girl that I love (present tense)

사랑하다 (to love) 사랑하는

지금 도착한 현우가 가장 친한 친구에요.
Hyunwoo who just arrived is my best friend.

Hyunwoo who just arrived (past tense)

도착하다 (to arrive) 도착한