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Korean grammar - Adjectives from action verbs

Adjectives from action verbs

Transforming a verb into a noun can be useful: 'to skip' 'skipping' so that we can say 'the skipping person is my brother' or 'the person who is skipping is my brother'.

In Korean this is straightforward and depends on the tense:

Past tense: Verb stem + ()

Present tense: Verb stem +

Future tense: Verb stem + ()

소파에서 잔 사람이 누구였어요?
Who is that person who slept on the sofa?

사람 - the person who slept (past tense)

자다 (to sleep)

도착한 기차는 대구에서 왔어요.
The train that arrived came from Daegu.

도착한 기차 - the train that arrived (past tense)

도착하다 (to arrive) 도착한

윤수가 산 전화기가 작동하지 않아요.
The phone that Yoonsu bought doesn't work.

전화 - the phone that was bought (past tense)

사다 (to buy)

지난주에 간 식당이 문을 닫았어요.
The restaurant I went to last week is closed (door is closed).

식당 - the restaurant to which (we) went (past tense): 가다 (to go)

잠자는 공주는 긴 검은 머리를 가졌어요.
The sleeping princess has long black hair.

잠자는 공주 - the princess who is sleeping (present tense)

잠자다 (to sleep) 잠자는

차를 운전하는 사람은 누구예요?
Who is the person driving the car?

운전하는 사람 - the person who is driving (present tense)

운전하다 (to drive) 운전하는

자는 시간에는 음악을 들어요.
I listen to music during sleep time/bedtime.

자는 시간 - the time for sleeping (present tense)

자다 (to sleep) 자는

오늘 저녁에 먹을 한국 음식은 뭐예요?
What’s the Korean dish that we’ll eat for dinner today?

먹을 한국 음식 - the Korean food that (we) will eat (future tense)

먹다 (to eat) 먹을

다음 달에 학교에 갈 사람은 저예요.
I am the person who will go to school next month.

사람 - the person who will go (future tense)

가다 (to go)

우리가 갈 곳은 멀어요.
The place we will go is far.

- to place to where (we) will go (future tense)

가다 (to go)

내일 신을 신발은 새 거예요.
The shoes I will wear tomorrow are new ones.

신을 신발 - the shoes that (I) will wear (future tense)

신다 (to wear) 신을

아버지가 요리한 음식을 먹어 봤어요?
Did you try the food father cooked?

요리한 음식 - the food that was cooked (past tense)

요리하다 (to cook) 요리한

저기 말하는 사람은 누구예요?
Who's that talking person over there?

말하는 사람 - the person who is talking (present tense)

말하다 (to speak, talk) 말하는

제가 사랑하는 여자는 착한 사람이에요.
The girl I love is a good person.

사랑하는 여자 - the girl that (I) love (present tense)

사랑하다 (to love) 사랑하는

지금 도착한 현우가 가장 친한 친구에요.
Hyunwoo who just arrived is my best friend.

도착한 현우 - Hyunwoo (who) arrived (past tense)

도착하다 (to arrive) 도착한