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French grammar - Relative pronouns after propositions with de - duquel, de laquelle, desquels and desquelles

Relative pronouns after propositions with de - duquel, de laquelle, desquels & desquelles

When the relative pronoun follows a preposition the ends with de then we need to use one of the following: duquel, de laquelle, desquels & desquelles.

These kinds of prepositions include près de, loin de, à côté de, à l'intérieur de.

And can also include other expressions with de such as au sujet de and à partir de.

These relative pronouns need to agree in gender and number with the noun they refer to.

-- Recall that even if the verb takes de, the relative pronoun dont cannot be used if it follows a preposition that ends with de. In this case we need to use one of the above relative pronouns.

Examples:
L'arbre près duquel tu es assis est un chêne.
The tree near which you are sitting is an oak tree.

près de means 'close to'

Voici les amis au sujet desquels nous sommes inquiets.
Here are the friends about whom we are worried.

au sujet de means 'about'

Demain est le jour à partir duquel la loi entre en vigueur.
Here is the date from which the law comes into force.

entrer en vigueur (verb) means 'to come into force'

Merci à vos amies, sans l'aide desquelles rien n'aurait été possible.
Thanks to you (female) friends, without whose help nothing would have been possible.
L'homme à côté duquel nous étions assis est un acteur très connu.
The man we were sitting next to is a very well-known actor.

à côté de means 'next to'

Voici le petit bateau à bord duquel j'ai traversé le fleuve.
This is the small boat onboard which I crossed the river.

à bord means 'onboard'

Prends la chaise au-dessous de laquelle il y a un sac.
Take the chair under which there is a bag.

au-dessous means 'under'

La boîte à l'intérieur de laquelle se trouvent les clés est rouge.
The box inside which the keys are located is red.

Note that feminine singular de quelle does NOT exist - instead de laquelle is used

à l'intérieur means 'inside'

C'est un roman à la fin duquel tout a bien fini.
This is a novel at the end of which everything ends well.
La classe près de laquelle nous nous trouvons est très grande.
The class near which we find ourselves is very large.

Note that feminine singular de quelle does NOT exist - instead de laquelle is used

Les personnes en face desquelles nous étions - elles parlaient finnois.
The people (females) we are opposite of - they were speaking Finnish.

en face means 'in front' or 'opposite'

C'est un parc au centre duquel se trouvent de belles fontaines.
It is a park in the center of which there are old trees.
Il y a eu des élections à la suite desquelles le gouvernement n'a pas changé.
There were elections following which the government did not change.

à la suite de means 'after (something)'

Je vous ai donné un chèque au bas duquel j'ai signé.
I gave you a check at the bottom of which I signed.
Ce sont des sujets à propos desquels nous nous disputons régulièrement.
These are the topics we argue about regularly.

à propos de means 'about' or concerning'

Ces personnes loin desquelles je me trouvais parlaient fort.
These people I was far from spoke loudly.

lion de means 'far from'

L’homme à côté duquel Mme Dupont est assise est son mari.
The man Mrs. Dupont is sitting next to is her husband.
Le parc près duquel je travaille est très grand.
The park near where I work is very big.
Les filles à côté desquelles je me suis assis n’étaient pas contentes.
The girls I sat next to were not happy.
La date à partir de laquelle nous devrons porter un masque a été reportée.
The date from which we will have to wear a mask has been postponed.
C'est un film à la fin duquel tout le monde rit.
It's a film at the end of which everyone laughs.
Beaucoup de maisons près desquelles coule la rivière sont un peu humides.
Many of the houses near which the river runs are a little damp.
La cheminée, au-dessus de laquelle est posée la statuette, est très ancienne.
The fireplace, above which the statuette is placed, is very old.
C'est un très beau chemin au bout duquel on peut voir toute la côte.
It is a very beautiful path at the end of which you can see the whole coast.
La colline, au sommet de laquelle il est monté, offre un joli point de vue.
The hill, to the top of which he climbed, offers a nice view.
Nous n'avons pas de nouvelles du bateau à bord duquel il est parti.
We have no news of the ship on which he left.
J'ai revu la pièce à propos de laquelle nous avions longuement discuté.
I saw the play about which we had discussed at length.
C'est l'escalier en bas duquel il t'attendra.
It's the stairs at the bottom of which he'll be waiting for you.
Nice est la ville pas loin de laquelle je suis né.
Nice is the city not far from which I was born.
C'est le jardin au travers duquel je passe souvent.
It is the garden through which I often pass.
Voici le quai au bord duquel se trouve le fameux Hôtel du Nord.
Here is the quay on the edge of which is the famous Hôtel du Nord.
Les séances lors desquelles nous parlerons d'économie auront lieu demain.
The sessions in which we will talk about economics will take place tomorrow.